It's the time of year to prune apple trees. We used to have an old orchard, and I loved renovating the apple trees there; it was amazing to see them springing back into life with renewed vigour. They must have been around 80 - 90 years old, so towards the end of their time, although pruning will extend their lives. This is one of the reason why orchards are such good habitats. Apple trees don't last long, so there is always lots of dead and rotting wood around, with their attendant flora and fauna. There are several reasons to prune, which you should bear in mind. Firstly, remove badly placed and rubbing branches, which can be an entry point for infection. Then think about increasing the light and air flow through the tree, to reduce the risk of infection and help apples ripen properly. I also cut out diseased wood rather than spraying a tree with fungicide, to help biodiversity. You also want to manage the tree's shape so it doesn't blow over or risk losing major limbs in windy weather. I was always told not to be frightened of taking too much off an old tree - up to 25% as a guide is fine - and to concentrate on taking bigger branches off to reduce the number of wounds. An old apple grower in Kent used to say a well pruned tree was one you could throw your hat through! The chances are good that when you renovate an old orchard you'll find heritage apple varieties
. Many have only gone out of fashion because they don't keep, bruise in transit or look asymmetrical. Think about grafting from the cuttings, to perpetuate part of our rural heritage. If you would like to know more about pruning have a look at this helpful video introduction from the People's Trust for Endangered Species - big orchard fans because of their importance as a habitat for so many rare flora and fauna.